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Gardening Keeps Getting Better

Knowledge makes power

The horticultural green industries — nursery, landscaping and greenhouse crops — are the second largest agricultural industry, second to poultry in Maryland and third in the nation. With home gardening the number one hobby, it is no wonder that the demand for trained horticulturists is so high.  
    Gardening is therapeutic, and those who partake in it realize great satisfaction from watching plants grow as well as enjoying the flowers, fruits or vegetables they produce.
    Nowadays, gardening is no longer limited to backyard plots. More than 80 percent of plants are grown in containers on decks, patios, balconies and windowsills or under artificial lights. Plastics have made it possible to design and manufacture containers that resist freezing and provide good drainage while looking attractive. Soilless light-weight rooting media, packaged in convenient-sized bags or boxes, are weed-free and engineered to satisfy the growing needs of most plants. Some containers can even keep the rooting media moist for several weeks.
    Advances in fertilizers in both organic and inorganic forms make it possible to limit the need to apply fertilizer on a timely schedule. Slow-release fertilizers are balanced to supply the needs of each nutrient based on well-established research.
    Greenhouses for home use were once expensive to build and maintain because they were covered with glass that was frequently broken by accident or by hail. Today’s small home-type greenhouses can be built inexpensively and covered with double-layer polyethylene or composites that can be shaped using a box cutter. These greenhouses are easily heated. Some of the plastic coverings can be used for several years, while composites have been known to last 20 years or more. Greenhouses allow you to start your own transplants for the garden and can be used to grow winter crops such as short-day onions, spinach, lettuce, radishes and Swiss chard with minimum heat.
    Many home gardeners are now starting to use low tunnels, small hoops 18 to 24 inches tall and 24 inches wide, in their gardens or raised beds. The tunnels allow them to start growing plants at least one month earlier in the spring and extend the fall growing season by at least a month. Clear polyethylene covers the hoops and is anchored to the ground by soil.
    A new method called Aerogation Green Wall Systems even grows plants on walls. These plants are grown in containers mounted to the wall; air from the room is forced through the rooting media, cleaning the air of impurities while humidifying and oxygenating it.
    Horticulture continues to evolve. When I joined University of Maryland’s Department of Horticulture in 1962, 80 percent of all nursery plants were grown in the ground. Container plants were mostly grown in greenhouses in clay pots. The rooting media consisted mostly of sterilized soil and peat moss. Plants were fertilized mostly with dry fertilizers such as 10-10-10 or 10-6-4 or liquid 20-20-20 using a hose-on-nozzle. Greenhouses were covered with glass and heated mostly by steam or forced hot water.
    Horticultural technology has made many dramatic changes and created many opportunities. The demand for trained horticulturists is greater now than ever before. Anyone can dig a hole, but it takes a good understanding of plant science to grow plants efficiently, protect them from insects and diseases and use them properly.


Ask Dr. Gouin your questions at DR.FRGouin@gmail.com. Please include your name and address.